Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Free Essays on 20th Century Cuban Immigration

Cuban Nationalism For several reasons, Cubans have a very strong sense of "Cubanidad," cultural identity. This sense of cultural identity comes partially from a sense of placeCuba as an island has clearly defined boundariesand partially from the homogeneity of language and shared culture. It is a major factor in the relative stability of the revolutionary government in Cuba and in the stability of the Cuban community in the United States. Despite the fact that within the Cuban-American community there is a great deal of political contention, the community forgets its differences in taking care of its own. One of the practical problems service providers face in working with newly-arrived Cubans is that they can function so comfortably within the Spanish-speaking Cuban-American communities: There is little motivation to learn English or move away to areas where there are better jobs. Cuban Immigration to the United States Given the closeness of Cuba to the United Statesboth geographical and, before the 1959 revolution, economicit is no surprise that there has always been movement of people between the countries. The 1910 census showed that there were officially 15,133 Cubans living in the United States, and a report on immigration to Congress at the time included data on 44,211 Cubans. In 1959, an estimated 124,000 Cubans were living in the United States. In the early years of the revolutionary government, an additional 215,000 moved here, and now the Cuban community is well over a million. As we mentioned above, the center of that community is in Miami, but there are sizable communities in other cities in Florida and in New York, Illinois, and California as well. The existence and size of the Cuban community in the United States is a result of both "push" and "pull" factors. The revolutionary government's inflexible attitude toward dissent, and its imperviousness to demands that dissenters make, probably constitute the greatest... Free Essays on 20th Century Cuban Immigration Free Essays on 20th Century Cuban Immigration Cuban Nationalism For several reasons, Cubans have a very strong sense of "Cubanidad," cultural identity. This sense of cultural identity comes partially from a sense of placeCuba as an island has clearly defined boundariesand partially from the homogeneity of language and shared culture. It is a major factor in the relative stability of the revolutionary government in Cuba and in the stability of the Cuban community in the United States. Despite the fact that within the Cuban-American community there is a great deal of political contention, the community forgets its differences in taking care of its own. One of the practical problems service providers face in working with newly-arrived Cubans is that they can function so comfortably within the Spanish-speaking Cuban-American communities: There is little motivation to learn English or move away to areas where there are better jobs. Cuban Immigration to the United States Given the closeness of Cuba to the United Statesboth geographical and, before the 1959 revolution, economicit is no surprise that there has always been movement of people between the countries. The 1910 census showed that there were officially 15,133 Cubans living in the United States, and a report on immigration to Congress at the time included data on 44,211 Cubans. In 1959, an estimated 124,000 Cubans were living in the United States. In the early years of the revolutionary government, an additional 215,000 moved here, and now the Cuban community is well over a million. As we mentioned above, the center of that community is in Miami, but there are sizable communities in other cities in Florida and in New York, Illinois, and California as well. The existence and size of the Cuban community in the United States is a result of both "push" and "pull" factors. The revolutionary government's inflexible attitude toward dissent, and its imperviousness to demands that dissenters make, probably constitute the greatest...

Monday, March 2, 2020

Biography of Lorenzo de Medici

Biography of Lorenzo de' Medici Lorenzo de’ Medici, (January 1, 1449 – April 8, 1492) was a Florentine politician and one of the most prominent patrons of arts and culture in Italy. During his reign as de facto leader of the Florentine Republic, he held together political alliances while sponsoring artists and encouraging the peak of the Italian Renaissance. Fast Facts: Lorenzo de' Medici Known For: Statesman and de facto leader of Florence whose reign coincided with a boom in the Italian Renaissance, thanks largely to his patronage of arts, culture, and philosophy.Also Known As: Lorenzo the Magnificent Born: January 1, 1449 in Florence, Republic of Florence (modern-day Italy)Died: April 8, 1492 at Villa Medici at Careggi, Republic of FlorenceSpouse: Clarice Orsini (m. 1469)Children: Lucrezia Maria Romola (b. 1470), Piero (b. 1472), Maria Maddalena Romola (b. 1473), Giovanni (b. 1475), Luisa (b. 1477), Contessina Antonia Romola (b. 1478), Giuliano (b. 1479); also adopted nephew Giulio di Giuliano de Medici (b. 1478)Quote:  Ã¢â‚¬Å"What I have dreamed in an hour is worth more than what you have done in four.†Ã‚   Medici Heir Lorenzo was a son of the Medici family, who held political power in Florence but also held power by virtue of the Medici Bank, which was the most powerful and respected bank in all of Europe for many years. His grandfather, Cosimo de’ Medici, cemented the family’s role in Florentine politics, while also spending a great deal of his vast fortune on building up the city-state’s public projects and its arts and culture. Lorenzo was one of five children born to Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici and his wife, Lucrezia (nee Tournabuoni). Piero was at the center of Florence’s politics scene and was an art collector, while Lucrezia was a poet in her own right and befriended many philosophers and fellow poets of the era. Because Lorenzo was deemed the most promising of their five children, he was brought up from a young age with the expectation that he would be the next Medici ruler. He was tutored by some of the top thinkers of the day and accomplished some notable achievements- such as winning a jousting tournament- while still a youth. His closest associate was his brother, Giuliano, who was the handsome, charming â€Å"golden boy† to Lorenzo’s plainer, more serious self. The Young Ruler In 1469, when Lorenzo was twenty years old, his father died, leaving Lorenzo to inherit the work of ruling Florence. Technically, the Medici patriarchs did not rule the city-state directly, but instead were statesmen who â€Å"ruled† via threats, financial incentives, and marriage alliances. Lorenzo’s own marriage took place the same year he took over from his father; he married Clarice Orsini, the daughter of a nobleman from another Italian state. The couple went on to have ten children and one adopted son, seven of whom survived to adulthood, including two future popes (Giovanni, the future Leo X, and Giulio, who became Clement VII). From the very beginning, Lorenzo de’ Medici was a major patron of the arts, even more so than others in the Medici dynasty, which always place a high value on the arts. Although Lorenzo himself rarely commissioned work, he often connected artists with other patrons and helped them get commissions. Lorenzo himself was also a poet. Some of his poetry- often concerned with the human condition as a combination of the bright and lovely alongside the melancholy and temporary- survives to this day. Artists who enjoyed Lorenzo’s patronage included some of the most influential names of the Renaissance: Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, and Michelangelo Buonarroti. In fact, Lorenzo and his family even opened their home to Michelangelo for three years while he lived and worked in Florence. Lorenzo also encouraged the development of humanism through the philosophers and scholars in his inner circle, who worked to reconcile the thought of Plato with Christian thought. The Pazzi Conspiracy Because of the Medici monopoly over Florentine life, other powerful families vacillated between alliance and enmity with the Medici. On April 26, 1478, one of those families came close to toppling the Medici reign. The Pazzi conspiracy involved other families, such as the Salviati clan, and was backed by Pope Sixtus IV in an attempt to overthrow the Medici. On that day, Lorenzo was attacked, along with his brother and co-ruler Giuliano, in the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore. Lorenzo was wounded but escaped with minor wounds, in part thanks to the assistance and defense of his friend, the poet Poliziano. Giuliano, however, was not as lucky: he suffered a violent death by stabbing. The response to the attack was swift and harsh, both on the part of the Medici and Florentines themselves. The conspirators were executed, and members of their families were also severely punished. Giuliano left behind an illegitimate son, Giulio, who was adopted and raised by Lorenzo and Clarice. Since the conspirators acted with the blessing of the pope, he attempted to seize Medici assets and excommunicated all of Florence. When that failed to bring Lorenzo around, he tried allying with Naples and launched an invasion. Lorenzo and the citizens of Florence defended their city, but the war took its toll, as some of Florence’s allies failed to come to their aid. Eventually, Lorenzo personally traveled to Naples to forge a diplomatic solution. He also commissioned some of Florence’s best artists to travel to the Vatican and paint new murals in the Sistine Chapel, as a gesture of reconciliation with the pope. Later Rule and Legacy Although his support for culture would ensure his legacy was a positive one, Lorenzo de’ Medici made some unpopular political decisions too. When alum, a hard-to-find but important compound for making glass, textiles, and leather, was discovered in nearby Volterra, the citizens of that city asked Florence for help mining it. However, a dispute soon arose when the citizens of Volterra realized the real value of the resource and wanted it for their own city, rather than the Florentine bankers assisting them. A violent insurrection resulted, and the mercenaries Lorenzo sent to end it sacked the city, permanently marring Lorenzo’s reputation. For the most part, though, Lorenzo attempted to rule peacefully; the cornerstone of his policy was to maintain a balance of power among the Italian city-states and to keep outside European powers out of the peninsula. He even maintained good trading ties with the Ottoman Empire. Despite his efforts, the Medici coffers were drained by their spending and by bad loans their bank supported, so Lorenzo began trying to fill the gaps through misappropriations. He also brought the charismatic friar Savonarola to Florence, who preached about the destructive nature of secular art and philosophy, among other things. The sensationalist friar would, in a few years’ time, help salvage Florence from French invasion, but would also lead to the end of Medici rule. Lorenzo de’ Medici died at the Villa Medici at Careggi, on April 8, 1492, reportedly dying peacefully after hearing the day’s Scripture readings. He was buried in the Church of San Lorenzo, alongside his brother Giuliano. Lorenzo left behind a Florence that would soon overthrow Medici rule- although his son and his nephew would eventually return the Medici to power- but he also left behind a rich and vast legacy of culture that came to define Florence’s place in history. Sources Kent, F.W. Lorenzo de’ Medici and the Art of Magnificence. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2004.â€Å"Lorenzo de’ Medici: Italian Statesman.† Encyclopaedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Lorenzo-de-Medici.Parks, Tim. Medici Money: Banking, Metaphysics, and Art in Fifteenth-Century Florence. New York: W.W. Norton Co., 2008.Unger, Miles J. Magnifico: The Brilliant Life and Violent Times of Lorenzo de’ Medici. Simon Schuster, 2009.

Friday, February 14, 2020

2 tpoic Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

2 tpoic - Assignment Example Philippines can be considered as the most westernized country in Asia. It has been colonialized by Spain for 330 years and by United States for few years. So it can be said that the country is very religious and westernize in orientation. The semi-feudal economic and political set up in the Philippines could be ascribed to the Spaniards feudal influences and its inability to become truly independent and to progress during the previous decades was due to its dependency to United States and its extensions, the IMF and WB. For decades, the country has been ruled by its oligarchs where its economic gains are only shared by few. Its political landscape was also marked by political upheavals experiencing three revolutions to depose a president. The country however has one of the highest literacy in the world and also have one of the highest number of English speaking people in the world. Its workers are known to be skilled and many left the country for greener pastures. Some reforms were instituted in the aftermath of the 1997 Asian Crisis which strengthened its economic fundamentals. The growing number of its educated citizens are beginning to demand better governance thus prompting the government to implement economic reforms albeit in a gradual phase. The biggest challenge for the country however was how to stamp out corruption as it had beset the country for decades. Recently, a campaign to clean the government seem to be fruitful as the country are showing gains in economics despite the recent financial recession. In fact, CNN dubbed the country as the most resilient while Bloomberg named Philippines as the fastest growing economy in the world. 1. The three best source that I found that during my exploratory research are from World Bank report, Bloomberg and CNN. These sources are considered best during my exploratory research because they are credible and reliable that relies their report on hard facts and figures than opinion. These

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Case Study 11-2, Dealing with Traffic Jams in London

11-2, Dealing with Traffic Jams in London - Case Study Example Project model provides essential information required in the implementation face. Integration of the technology proposed by the project was a challenge since the technology kept changing. The design of the streets does not provide an opportunity for mounting the cameras. The positioning of the cameras required clear roads, which would facilitate the relaying of the pictures. The project faced a political risk since the mayor of the city wanted to build his reputation. The fear of failure was a menace that the project had to deal with. Inadequate experience in the application information technology was another challenge that the project faced. The management strategy that I would recommend for the project include outsourcing competent personnel in the field of information technology to jump start a pilot project in a few streets in the city. Rolling the project in the whole city at one time could not yield effective result. Strategic development of checks and balances for the project would help to avoid inconveniencies. Project methodology identified five critical areas that it would address in piloting the project. Selection of technology for the five key areas was a step taken in order to reduce risks. Tendering of the project to large cooperation was a wise move since large corporations have the ability to meet big project. Provision of small tenders to individuals could help in making effective management of the project (Wysocki, 2011). Management of tenders by Deloitte & Touche was geared towards achieving the best result. After the selection of the best bidder, the project rolled out. Management of the project by a firm like Deloitte was a wise decision since it helped the city government to monitor the work without the political interference. The approach that was developed in the project methodology was appropriate since it eliminated risks that the project

Friday, January 24, 2020

GOOD STUFF :: essays research papers

April 19, 2001--Tennessee State University has renamed the Heiman Street Residential Complex the Harold E. Ford Sr. and John N. Ford Residential Complex. The Ford brothers were joined by other family members for ceremonies help April 18 on the grounds of the complex. "It is wonderful to see so many senators here today; we can hold a budget meeting right now," Harold Ford said, as he pointed out dignitaries in the audience. They included Lieutenant Governor John Wilder, Deputy Governor Wendell Moore, Senator Gene Elsea, Senator Doug Henry, Senator James Kyle Jr., and Senator Randy McNally. After receiving commemorative gifts, the Fords surprised the audience with a gift to Tennessee State of $500,000. "This is a truly outstanding donation, and the Fords can be sure Tennessee State University will put it to good use," said TSU President James Hefner. There are 12 siblings in the Ford family, most of whom graduated from Tennessee State University. On hand for the presentation were brother Joe Ford; sisters Joyce Ford Miller and Ophelia Ford; nephews James Ford Jr. and Edmund Ford; and Autumn Ford, John Ford’s daughter. Harold Ford Jr., U.S. Representative, relayed his regrets for not being able to attend, as did Governor Don Sundquist and former vice president Al Gore. "I am proud today," said Lt. Gov. Wilder. "Is it because of the bricks and mortar we are recognizing today? No, though we need bricks and mortar. Is it because of Tennessee State University? No, though that is reason to be proud. "I am proud because I look back to Purdy, Tennessee, where Otis Floyd [former president of Tennessee State University] attended school in a one-room schoolhouse. He let me walk by his side. I am proud when I think of Odell Horton [United States District Judge for the Western District of Tennessee] working in a cotton patch in Hardin County. He let me walk by his side. But nothing makes me prouder than this family. I love you; God bless you." U.S. Representative Harold Ford Sr. became the first African American from the state of Tennessee to be elected to Congress and served from 1975 until his retirement in 1997. Senator John N. Ford has served in the Tennessee State Senate since 1974. He has been a key supporter of Tennessee State University throughout his legislative tenure and played a significant role during the development of the $112 million master plan for campus improvement. Both Congressman Ford and Senator Ford are alumni of TSU who have continually supported the university throughout their careers.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

‘The Pit and The Pendulum’ by Edgar Allan Poe and ‘An Encounter’ by James Joyce Essay

An analytical study of ‘The Pit and The Pendulum’, ‘An Encounter’ and ‘The Pedestrian’, focusing on the themes of paralysis, entrapment and isolation The texts chosen for this study are: ‘The Pit and The Pendulum’ by Edgar Allan Poe and ‘An Encounter’ by James Joyce which, I feel, are appropriate as they provide comprehensive coverage of the themes analysed whilst managing to cover a historical period of some seventy years1. Poe’s piece is a dark, Gothic work which deals, in great depth, with the notion of both mental and physical paralysis encompassed in an entrapping and isolated atmosphere. Joyce, on the other hand, takes a characteristically more diverse and subtle approach to the concept of paralysis, cunningly concealing the theme within the stagnant surroundings of his Dublin. Verbal ‘entrapment’ is furthermore offered in the form of a dubious elderly man. The story ‘An Encounter’ by James Joyce amply exhibits many stylistic features associated with the modernist author – for example the use of epiphany or writing through first person narrative, with inner monologue to highlight the consciousness of the protagonist and also subtly divulge the feelings of others to the perhaps more ‘aware’ readership. However, Poe, on the contrary, chooses to play the cards of shock and terror in a style which is far more explicit and gruesome in comparison with Joyce’s incorporation of ambiguity. The theme of paralysis is key to Joyce’s work – the notion is implicit throughout Dubliners as a whole. With this idea comes its antithesis – escape – or with respect to ‘An Encounter’ and many of the other stories, thwarted escape. It is because of the character’s desire to achieve this freedom, that when the day fails to reach its high expectations, the stagnation and restrictiveness of the surroundings are powerfully reinforced – perhaps even confirmed. From the outset of the tale, Joyce ponders the notion of escape. Characters searching for such an escape, often describe how they would wish to travel afar to achieve it. So important, it seems, is this idea that the protagonist of the initial story of Dubliners, can be quoted of aspiring to exotic, foreign fantasy: ‘I felt that I had been very far away, in some land where the customs were strange – in Persia, I thought.’ This feeling is openly exhibited in ‘An Encounter’, as Joyce’s first person narrator states; ‘Real adventures, I reflected, do not happen to people who remain at home: they must be sought abroad.’ In the story, Joyce develops the theme in the form of an inner monologue – the thoughts of the protagonist dictating how his ‘Wild West’ adventures ‘opened doors of escape’. The method used is quite customary of the author- the thought processes of the boy (relating to escape) are ultimately what drive the tale, yet Joyce quietly conveys them through subtle, nondescript details. Joyce’s relationship with his hometown appears, like his works, slightly ambiguous. He may often be quoted of his distaste for the stagnant city2, succeeding in displaying it with an absence of enthusiasm, as a moribund, non-eventful hive. However, one feels that on reflection, after reading his work a subtle affection is undoubtedly apparent – perhaps Joyce’s time spent in exile3 incubated an innate longing for the city – Dublin’s entrapment being, perhaps, what fuelled this fascination with the petty happening of the city? Joyce’s relationship with the theme of entrapment in Dubliners is essential to the text: at times he appears intent, at others repelled. ‘An Encounter’ deals with methods of escape other than exotic foreign adventure, focusing on the attempt of two boys to ‘break out of the weariness’ of their everyday environment. Although, at first the prospect of adventure excites the young boys, there is constant undertone of anti-climax carefully intertwined into the story. Joyce writes from the first person point view, often through analepsis. It is perhaps because of this that a frequent air of frustration pursues the young schoolboys – it is as if the story is being recalled by a man embittered by the ‘restraining’ and ultimately paralysed city of Dublin. Quite often Joyce refuses to commit any fervent emotion to events, preferring to use lacklustre qualifying adverbs or adjectives; ‘†¦ We were all vaguely excited†¦ it was a mild sunny morning’ Joyce intently chooses to focus in on the most insipid details, usually choosing to focus on empirical sense experience – such as Mahoney’s grey suit or the ‘brown4 fishing fleet’- which works to suppress the buoyant atmosphere. This notion is also relative to the descriptive mood, which the author quite purposely generates through negative evocation of certain aspects: ‘†¦ The docile horses†¦ the drivers of groaning carts.’ This process of qualification through modifiers generates a subdued atmosphere parallel to that of the jaded inner-consciousness of the protagonists. The negativity which is now apparent in almost everything encountered appears to be an entrapping agent over the boys, who sulk into a resigned and somewhat resentful state, a state which is furthermore reiterated by the repetition of the adverb ‘too’: ‘It was too late and we were too tired to carry out our project of visiting the Pigeon House.’ Joyce has succeeded in presenting Dublin as an impotent city of circularity and entrapment. He is now anxious to erase the protagonist’s claim; ‘I was very happy’, from the audience’s memories, introducing words such as ‘solemn’, ‘sedulous’ and eventually even denotes the character’s thoughts as ‘jaded’. There is constant, yet suitable repetition of the adjective ‘tired’ – the day has become tedious, adventure and escape have proved elusive, and the encounter of a less than legendary sea-farer has confirmed that the protagonist will not find merriment in Dublin, forever doomed to live in the fantasies of comic book and literature. However, despite its lack of event, the day does provide the boys with one notable incident. Aspirations of escape having been superseded, Joyce begins a new paragraph focusing primarily on the silence and ‘stillness’ of the eventual situation: ‘There was nobody but ourselves in the field. [We had] lain on the bank for some time without speaking’. Through creating such an ominous, yet ‘dying’ atmosphere – sentences slowly becoming shorter, more concise (defeating imaginative possibility as displayed by the boys hitherto) and less picturesque use of vocabulary – Joyce signals the need for new themes to be introduced. He achieves this through the introduction of a curious elderly antagonist. The old man introduces the possibility of in-depth monologue and direct speech. In the conversation with the boys, he seemingly manages to entrap the young protagonist with his reference to literature – a topic of known interest to the boy – and also through cunningly incorporating a sinister ‘circular’ approach. Joyce is very keen to exploit the idea of circularity in his work and in this piece, the ‘monotonous’ voice of the antagonist and the way his voice ‘slowly circles round and round in the same orbit’, help to achieve the spellbinding quality of the man. This technique paralyses the narrator, who seemingly allows the man to give a discourse in the form of a monologue – mainly due to his apparent inability to interrupt. The politeness evident in the boy’s character is in hindsight, far from being useful. Joyce implicitly airs his personal views on the expensive Jesuit schooling that the protagonist has been subject to by placing the boy in a situation of danger. The resultant irony – learnt social skills being a hindrance – also helps highlight Joyce’s disregard for the church and its establishments. The worrying feature of the man’s discourse is the implicitly perverse way in which he speaks. He frequently refers to the ‘whipping’ of young boys, with one feels, over-excitable ardour. Joyce establishes the man’s odd approach through primarily using such adjectives as ‘magnetised’ and ‘circle’ in reference to his thought process. This creates the impression that he is intent on the subject. Secondly, a section of reported speech is introduced; ‘When a boy was rough and unruly there was nothing would do him any good but a good sound whipping†¦ what he wanted was to get a nice warm whipping.’ Joyce emphasises the mans positive outlook on the subject through the use of a positive lexical range; there is repetition of the word ‘good’ – firstly as a noun, secondly as an adjective – and also use of the adjective ‘nice’, which appears somewhat misplaced when used in conjunction with the concept of whipping. The protagonist’s isolation from sympathetic intellectuals due to young age means he is quick to warm to the old man when he talks of literature. In the epiphany, he even appears isolated from his closest friend, Mahoney, and it appears to me that the epiphany of the piece (from the young boy’s perspective) confirms that the older man has had a profound influence on his views – both intellectually and sexually. It appears that after entrapment, the isolation of the naà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ve child has left him susceptible to corruption and the ‘encounter’ has left the boy and the audience with the idea (with undoubted authorial intent) that the world is not such an innocent place. Such mental metamorphosis is more openly explicit in Edgar Allen Poe’s work, no epiphanies are evident, yet a first person narrative works to convey the progressively tortured thoughts of the protagonist to the reader. ‘The Pit and The Pendulum’ is a piece typical of the nineteenth century ‘gothic horror’ genre. The main area of focus is that of psychological terror and mental torture of the protagonist, brought about through natural agents and physical entrapment and isolation. The style is typical of Poe, aesthetic – as opposed to scientific – and wholly grotesque. The piece is, in its simplest form, an account of the destruction of the protagonist’s psyche. Poe begins ‘in medias res’ by describing the trial of the man, the narrator intently focusing upon his gloomy and confused mental state. Syntax used is complex and verbose, helpfully describing the characters inner consciousness and displaying his tangled, entrapping thought processes. The lexical field and imagery employed is especially exotic and indulgent – Poe uses metaphorical language peppered with adverbs and adjectives as the candles before the man alter from ‘white slender angels’ to ‘meaningless spectres, with heads of flame’. Another technique which is commonly employed by Poe is that of repetition, in this particular story, Poe often relies on the syntactical position of verbs to gradually heighten tension, and prompt his audience. A good example of repetition may be found when the protagonist is awaiting his doom at the hands of the pendulum – each new paragraph commences with the preposition ‘down’: ‘Down – steadily down it crept†¦ Down – certainly relentlessly down!.. Down – still increasingly – still inevitably down!’ This repetition works to give extra strength to the nemesis and increase the tense, anxious and bleak atmosphere. The notion of ‘down’ is the most important in the authors mind, and the layout of the word on the page vividly reflects the terrifying motion of the blades descent and, more importantly, the ever more dejected mental state of the protagonist. A technique used by Poe – and also exhibited by Joyce- is that of prolepsis. The fact that the protagonist is often left thinking of what ‘may be’ suggests a certain degree of isolation – the surrounding atmosphere offering no apparent subjects for the character to focus on in the present. In ‘The Pit and the Pendulum’, Poe incorporates a feeling of perpetual unease into the thought processes of his protagonist. There are frequent examples of this which often come about directly before the ‘ghastly’ prospects of the character are realised; as in the heightened, almost hysterical language and excited syntax of: ‘The result of the slightest struggle, how deadly! Was it likely, moreover, that the minions of the torturer had not foreseen and provided for this probability? It is characteristic of Poe to use hyperbole, a technique which creates a melancholy, theatrical feeling – often seemingly increasing the grandeur. Hyperbole also escalates the terror and entrapment suffered by the protagonist, the indulgent language used portrays a somewhat exaggerated experience to the audience. This technique is supported by extensive use of adjective and adverb, commonly negative in effect, as when the protagonist is close to death by the pendulum; ‘The odour of the sharp steel forced itself into my nostrils. I prayed – I wearied heaven with my prayer for its more speedy descent. I grew frantically mad, and struggled to force myself upward against the sweep of the fearful scimitar. And then I fell suddenly calm, and lay smiling at the glittering death†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Psychological entrapment in the story is offered in the form of ‘The Pit’. To accomplish the desired atmosphere for such a tortured fate, Poe begins to describe the physical surroundings of the protagonist in some detail. The ‘subterranean world of darkness’ to which the man is instantly subject to is stereotypically associated with Poe’s genre of writing, the gloom becoming a perfect vehicle to carry an unnerving, mystifying atmosphere. Further concern for the antagonist is drawn from the constant reference to his ‘fatigued’ state and also the dangerously ‘moist and slippery’ characteristics of the chamber. The tension generated relies heavily on Poe’s use of syntax – the protagonist encounters ‘The Pit’ through a sequence of brief sentences: ‘I proceeded for many paces; but still all was blackness and vacancy. I breathed more freely.’ The length of the sentences and the fact that Poe does not feel it necessary to justify or convolute the thoughts of the protagonist – who currently sees his punishment as ‘[not] the most hideous of fates’ – represents relatively calm and clear thought processes. As the narrator becomes evermore aware of the horrific situation, Poe mirrors his mounting terror through increasingly complex syntax: ‘The difficulty, nevertheless, was but trivial; although, in the disorder of my fancy, it seemed at first insuperable.’ Poe’s evidently excessive accentuation of punctuation, creating furthermore verbose sentences, achieves a faster movement of thought and a growing sensation of confusion. Eventually, as the protagonist gradually uncovers the secrets of his confinement, a greater fear of entrapment and danger being incubated inside him is realised. Poe displays this through every quickening pace in complex sentences which are supported with dashes – giving the effect of total bemusement and terror in the protagonist, feelings which almost lead to the making of treacherous mistakes. Quite suddenly, with a simple sentence – perceptibly out of step with the ever-increasing complexity of the syntax – the climax of the character’s investigation is revealed; ‘I stepped on it, and fell violently on my face.’ With the inclusion of this short, astute sentence, Poe signals that complex syntax hitherto has given sufficient insight to the audience and that the tensi on has peaked. The fact that the piece is written in the form of a first person narrative always suggests – in a similar style to James Joyce’s reflective, possibly older narrator – that the protagonist is reminiscing about his exploits, and that ultimately the piece will not end in his death. This is, of course, the case when General Lasalle of the French army comes to the rescue. The ending is extremely interesting as Poe chooses, unlike the other events of the story, to dramatically reduce proceedings – deciding to summarise the rescue in a short paragraph. The said paragraph uses more restrained syntax – exclamation is succeeded by a simple statement which, in the context, appears almost bathetic. ‘The fiery walls rushed back!.. The French army had entered Toledo.’ It is not entirely clear why Poe has chosen to end the piece in an almost anticlimactic manner. Perhaps he chooses to condense the singular joyful occurrence of the narrative thus maintaining its stance as a work of horror. Many sources, however, maintain that the story’s closure was dictated by demanding time restrictions implemented by Poe’s publishers5. Another reason for Poe choosing a first person narrator is perhaps that this perspective gives us a stronger feeling of entrapment due to our constant awareness of the innermost feelings of the protagonist. The narrative does not, unlike a third person perspective, allow the audience to transcend the situation, providing direct access to the horror which is occurring on the page. There is also no direct speech in the story. This fact reinforces the idea of isolation in the way that the protagonist has no need to speak due to absolute solitude. The grotesque element of Poe’s work, which quite frequently works as a perversely aesthetic or romantic catalyst for the mental entrapment of the protagonist, is usually evident in the form of a tormentor drawn from nature.6 In ‘The Pit and The Pendulum’, psychological suffering is brought on by a swarm of rats. These animals bring negative connotation, as they are associated with such horror as The Plague. They are definitely an effective device which works to supplement the physical entrapment already being suffered by the protagonist at this time. At one point, Poe also uses ‘fearful images’ of skeleton forms and such, which ‘disfigure’ the surrounding walls. It is stated that these figures have been created by monks, suggesting that this environment is some kind of medieval building – not designed specifically for torture. It is therefore interesting to observe how Poe manages to alter these innocent images into emotionally petrifying fiends – working as the author will have wished, to terrify the protagonist and therefore, the readership. By introducing entrapment in the form of the wooden framework and hideous vermin, Poe has realised the importance of including both physical and metaphysical entrapment a work of the Gothic horror genre of which he is undeniably a master.    1 ‘The Pit and The Pendulum’ was first published in 1843 for a collection named The Gift, later (revised) for the Broadway Journal in 1985. ‘An Encounter’ – taken from Dubliners – was written in 1904 yet published 1914. 2 In a letter to his English publisher, Grant Richards, he claimed that his intention was ‘to write a chapter of the moral history of my country and I chose Dublin for the scene because that city seemed to me the centre of paralysis.’ (Letters, II, 134). 3 During the summer of 1904, Joyce and his new-found love Nora Barnacle left Ireland for Europe. At ‘An Encounter’s’ time of writing, it is most likely that Joyce was living in Pola – Croatia. 4 The use of the adverb ‘brown’ is also evident to the same effect in the story ‘Araby’. Entrapment is projected through the ‘brown imperturbable faces’ of the housing. 5 SEE NOTE

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Future Tenses Review Quiz for ESL

This quiz reviews future forms including: Future simple - Used for predictions, spontaneous reactions and promisesFuture with going to - Used for plans events and things you see are about to occurFuture perfect - Used for what will have been completed by a future moment in timeFuture continuous - Used for what will be happening at a specific moment in time in the futurePresent continuous for the future - Used for scheduled events in the future Future Forms Quiz Choose the correct future form in brackets and type it into the box. Click on the button to check your answer. Peter knows that he (will / is going to) fly to Chicago next week.Oh no! Ive broken the vase. What (am I going to say / will I say)?Jack (is having / will have) a dinner party next Saturday.By the time you arrive, Ill (have been / be) working for two hours.John hasnt eaten. - Dont worry (I will make / I am going to make) him a sandwich.Well go out for dinner when he (gets in / will get in).Unless he arrives soon, we (will not go/ are not going) to the party.(I will be studying / I will have studied) at 9 tomorrow evening.(We will have finished / We will finish) by 9 oclock.Look at those clouds! It (is going to rain / will rain)! Quiz Answers Peter knows that he is going to fly to Chicago next week. -  Use the future with going to to express future plans.  Oh no! Ive broken the vase. What will I say? -  Use the future with will when reacting to something that happens at the time of speaking.  Jack is having a dinner party next Saturday. -  Its possible to use the present continuous when speaking about scheduled events in the future.  By the time you arrive, Ill have been working for two hours. -  Use the future perfect to state what will have been finished before a time in the future.John hasnt eaten. - Dont worry I will make him a sandwich. -  Use the future with will to react to a present situation.  Well usually  go out for dinner when he gets in. -  Use the future with will when using when in the same sense as if.  Unless he arrives soon, we will not go to the party. -  Use the future with will in real conditional (first conditional) sentences.  I will be studying at nine tomorrow evening. -  Use the future continuous to express what will be happening at a specific moment in the future.  We will have finished by nine oclock. -  Use the future perfect to express something that will be completed by a specific time in the future.  Look at those clouds! It is going to rain! -  Ã‚  Use the future with going to when you can see that something is about to happen.   If youve had difficulty understanding the reasons for these forms, make sure to review future forms and then take the quiz again.